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Business Plan: Presenting Your Plan. Now that you've invested dozens of hours doing research, compiling data, organizing your information and writing it down, it's time to consider how to present your plan to music video coursework, prospective lenders or investors. But first, you may want to take some time to app essays, clear your mind. Media? Let the plan sit for a few days, then review it with fresh eyes. Better yet, hire a business plan consultant to give you a different perspective and offer suggestions for improvement. Once you’re confident that your written plan is in essay douglass its final form, you’re ready to figure out music video, how to present it. The Written Business Plan Presentation. The importance of your plan's appearance can't be understated: it's your business's first impression. Writing 11th Edition Online? If your plan looks sloppy, readers may assume that the information it contains is inaccurate and not well-thought-out and that your business is run carelessly. Include a cover letter to introduce yourself and your plan. A title page and table of contents will show that you are professional and organized and video media coursework will help the use quotes reader to music, locate key information within your plan.
Include subsections in your table of contents so that, for how to in essay mla, example, the reader can easily locate your income statement instead of video coursework, having to thumb through the entire financial plan section to common app essays, find it. Also, each major section (the financial plan, the marketing and sales plan, etc.) may benefit from a brief summary at the beginning that ranges in length from one paragraph to video coursework, one page, depending on how much material it’s summarizing. Nothing says you have to lay out your plan exactly as described in this tutorial. While it is important to include all the information we've discussed, you may find, for music, example, that even though marketing and sales are closely intertwined, you have enough to music coursework, say about essay of frederick, each subject that you would rather present them in separate sections. There is music media, also flexibility in the order in which you present your plan, outside of putting the of frederick douglass title page, table of music media coursework, contents and executive summary at the beginning, in that order, and the appendix at the very end. Present your information in a logical order, but be aware that financiers are likely to skip around and read the essay of frederick douglass information in the order that best suits their purposes rather than reading the plan from music media cover to cover.
One professional you should consider hiring to help finalize your plan is an editor, who will see mistakes that you don't, point out sentences that are unclear and notice sections that are disorganized. An editor will make sure that the tone of your business plan is appropriate – formal, but easy to understand. Essay Of Frederick? He or she will also make sure there are no spelling or grammar errors. Overall, a professional editor will make the plan more readable and make sure your message is presented clearly and concisely. Concise doesn't mean that you have to leave out important details to music video coursework, save space, but that you present all the necessary information in the most efficient way possible. Further, while an outside editor won’t be looking at your plan from the same perspective that an investor or lender would, they will be looking at it with the same lack of inside information that those readers will have, which means they will notice the parts of your plan that aren’t explained clearly and media help you rewrite them in a way that people who don’t work for your company can understand. Complete the professional editing before the design and music media coursework layout to make sure the use quotes mla designer isn’t wasting time trying to figure out how to put material you will later change or cut on the page, then do a final round of music video media, proofreading after the editing and design are complete.
Your plan must have a formal layout with consistent formatting. It should use visual aids where appropriate, but any graphics you include must be relevant and and the environment professional – think charts, graphs and tables presenting pertinent data, and photos of your actual business, not stock photos. Hire a professional graphic designer to give your plan a polished look. (For more, see 4 Steps To Creating A Stellar Business Plan .) Including an appendix section in your business plan allows you to music media coursework, supplement the information provided in the main sections. Since you don't want your main sections to be too long or too detailed, the appendix is writing with a thesis online, where you should include supporting documents that provide additional details that potential lenders and investors will want to see if they decide that your plan has merit. For example, while you should have provided descriptions of your professional background and the professional backgrounds of media coursework, your management team and key employees in the main document, you should save full resumes for the appendix. Your appendix could also include letters of environment, reference from individuals familiar with your business performance, such as former bosses and high-level co-workers; additional details from your market research; legal documents such as your business license, articles of music video coursework, incorporation, and the lease or purchase agreement for the building you will operate out of, and more.
You might also need the most recent two to three years of tax returns for each owner if your business is new, or the returns for your business if it is already established. Because of the sensitive data that tax returns contain, you should find out if they are required before you include them. Essay Douglass? If they are, thoroughly block out Social Security and music video coursework business tax ID numbers. Finally, anything else you think is plastic, important enough to be part of the business plan but too cumbersome to include in the main document can go in the appendix. The Oral Business Plan Presentation. If you have excelled in music video media coursework putting together your written business plan, you will have a chance to make your case on essay douglass, the phone, by video videoconference or in person. How To Use Quotes In Essay Mla? You must be thoroughly prepared to make a positive and lasting personal impression and a strong argument for music, your business. How will you accomplish this?
First, practice your pitch. Even though the potential backer should have looked at your business plan by this point, you should still prepare a short summary speech that highlights the how to use quotes mla points you made in your executive summary. Don't memorize an entire speech; just memorize the coursework outline of what you want to say. That way, you will hit all of the important points but sound sincere in your delivery. You may even want to visit a public speaking club such as Toastmasters to environment, practice your speaking and presentation skills ahead of time and get constructive feedback.
Even if you don't want to present the plan itself to a group of strangers since it may contain proprietary business ideas, getting practice speaking on other topics will still help you. Music Media? (For more, check out What Is An Entrepreneur's Elevator Pitch? ) Brainstorm questions that the person or group you are meeting with is plastic and the, likely to video media, ask you, and prepare answers to those questions. It might help to ask trusted, business-savvy friends to review key parts of your plan as devil's advocates so you can practice and be prepared to defend everything in your plan. A Thesis 11th? A common mistake business owners make is to get feedback only from friends and media coursework relatives. The problem with this approach is and the essays, that, often, the people who care about media coursework, you will be inclined to support you or tell you that your ideas are good because they believe in you, don't want to of frederick, hurt your feelings or don’t know enough about the industry to know if your business idea is viable. Even if you have less-sympathetic, brutally honest friends and relatives – even ones who are totally skeptical that your idea has any merit – they may not understand your idea from music video media a business or investment perspective, and thus will not be able to provide the kind of feedback you really need. Know Your Financials. Further, to have a successful business plan presentation, you must thoroughly understand the basic financials included in common 2013-14 your plan. Plenty of entrepreneurs didn’t major in finance or get an MBA, and you don’t need to music video, memorize every detail, but, as the owner, you should understand enough to common 2013-14, speak about your own business’s finances intelligently. How much money are you contributing to the business? How much financing are you requesting? What do your projected sales, gross margin and net profit look like for each of the next three years?
If you sell more than one thing, what percentage of total sales will come from each product or service? By when will you be able to repay the loan or implement an exit strategy for investors? Bring other members of your management team onto the call or into the meeting to strengthen your presentation and music compensate for any weaknesses you may have. How To Use Quotes In Essay? For in-person meetings, make sure that you present yourself with a professional and confident appearance and manner, just like you would for a job interview. Whether you're presenting your business plan in writing or in person, remember that the presentation itself must be engaging or your business, not just your presentation, will seem unappealing. Don't assume that your audience is familiar with your industry or line of media, business, and a thesis edition online avoid using industry jargon or acronyms. Make your case from the potential lender or investor's perspective; offer a realistic risk and return scenario and one that fits the coursework profile of their usual investments. Plan to shop around for financing: first, because you may be rejected several times, and media second, because one offer may be more favorable than another.
If you are rejected, and there's a very good chance you will be at music first, don’t assume that your business idea isn't viable. It may be that your business opportunity isn't the environment essays right match for that particular investor or lender, or that something is lacking from your plan or your presentation. If you are rejected, set aside your pride and get as much information as possible about music video media coursework, why that person wasn't interested so you can fix problems and improve your chances of succeeding at of frederick douglass your next pitch. If your business plan is rejected repeatedly, there's probably a good reason for it. Why don't experienced lenders or investors think your business will succeed? How can you change your business model and reformulate your plan into something that has greater potential? Would the media coursework lender or investor be willing to consider an improved version of your proposal at a later date, or are they uninterested no matter what?
Finally, sometimes unfavorable economic conditions will prevent a funding request from app essays 2013-14 getting approved. Don’t be too quick to blame the music video coursework economy – startups can get funded and succeed even during a recession – but consider the possibility that your idea might look more appealing in a better economic climate, which means you’ll have to work harder if you want to scale it up right now. Also, sometimes you can borrow with a Small Business Administration loan when you can’t borrow from anyone else. Traditional lenders fund these loans, but the government guarantees partial repayment if you default to writing, entice lenders to extend funds to businesses they would otherwise consider too risky. Music Video? That being said, if the app essays only loan you qualify for is a high-risk loan, ask yourself if your business is really ready to borrow capital or if there are problems that need to be worked out media coursework, first. (For a different point of view, see Lending From A Loan Officer's Perspective .)
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Like many others, the video media, service uses an online interface to help automate your business plan#39;s creation. To get started, users enter basic information about their businesses, including product details. Then, Enloop#39;s software uses metrics to help predict the financial performance of the common, company in comparison with others in the sector. According to CEO Cynthia McCahon, the goal of the company is to help entrepreneurs make better-informed decisions. Users can get started on music media, Enloop for park free; more advanced paid options are also available.
LivePlan is a relatively new entrant to the online business-tools market that helps you every step of the way, from the planning stages through your launch. Like other services, LivePlan allows business owners to craft perfectly formatted plans. Music Media Coursework? From there, users can create the presentation necessary to pitch their business ideas to would-be investors. Once off the ground, businesses can track revenue and expenses against music forecasts, and multiple users within a company can work through the LivePlan interface. Pricing starts at less than $12 a month. The One Page Business Plan Company. Music Video? Created by The One Page Business Plan Company, this simple business template covers only the key areas entrepreneurs need to address to essay douglass, start a business: their vision for the company, mission for why the business exists, objectives for music coursework setting out mla, goals, strategies to make the business successful and action plans indicating what work needs to be done. Unlike complicated business plans, boring blocks of text are not required bullet points will do. Are you the music coursework, visual type? Look no further than Angela Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan. Based on the principles of the Business Generation Model Strategyzer app, Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan uses sticky notes to help you creatively craft an out-of-the-box business plan.
To create a One-Page Visual Business Plan, start by separating a single page into app essays, different sections or columns, such as company information and customer segments. Write down your ideas or responses on a sticky note, and then stick it on the corresponding section. Music Video Media Coursework? You can also color-code the douglass, sticky notes for better organization. Then, if your plans change, you can easily remove a note, move it around or add new ones to better fit the direction in music video which your business is headed. SBA Build Your Business Plan Tool. The fact that the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) has an online tool to help users craft business plans will come as no surprise to anyone who has investigated the SBA#39;s offerings before. Park 2013? The agency has a wealth of coursework, free planning, financing and consulting tools and resources, both online and through available consultants. The SBA#39;s online tool for business-plan creation allows a user to enter information on a Web interface that is music video, tied to that user#39;s account.
The administration says this is intended to be a live plan that can be referred to and changed as the company#39;s plans progress. The SBA encourages entrepreneurs to music video, use their generated plans to discuss their company#39;s prospects with SBA advisers like those available through SCORE and the Small Business Development Center. The SBA#39;s tool is available online at no cost. App Essays 2013-14? Greg Go, co-founder of online finance community Wise Bread, is a big believer that entrepreneurs who are just starting out don#39;t need lengthy business plans. What they actually need, he said, is an internal working plan to music coursework, get started. The internal working plan consists of plastic, four simple questions that make up the simple business plan: What is your product or service? Who are your customers? When will things get done?
When are bills due, and when do you get paid? To guide entrepreneurs in completing their four-question business plan, Go provides a simplified way of answering each question in his blog post on the subject. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to help you with writing a complete business plan, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of vendors for free. Updated on May 1, 2015. Additional reporting by Business News Daily staff writer Sara Angeles.
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Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an adapted version of video media a repertory grid as proposed by Donaghue (2003). The repertory grid was introduced and used in a session in which the of frederick, participants individually generated their constructs and coursework compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to essay douglass, write an evaluation of the activity as an instrument to elicit beliefs. Music. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to a thesis online, detect the participant’s perceptions of the video coursework, activity and to shed further light on douglass the value of this instrument. Conclusions about the applicability of the repertory grid technique and, in particular, the instrument used in this study in second language teacher education and teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development. It is widely accepted that people’s beliefs have an impact on their behaviour. Music Video Media Coursework. Thought and action are interactively related: ‘What people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave’ (Bandura, 1986, p. 25).
Reviewing the relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and their influence on teaching practice in a set of five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an individual understanding and essay of frederick douglass interpretation of teaching practice and social, as the understanding and interpretation is shaped in a social and cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and theoretical in a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and modified in the light of practical knowledge (i.e. experienced knowledge) to video, fit it to 2013, teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. unconscious and difficult to verbalise, and those ones being explicit, i.e. teachers are able to verbalize them, to provide a rationale and to relate them to previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. open to change; however, it is uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is linked to the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and music indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the term teacher cognition referring to the ‘unobservable cognitive dimension of teaching ‘ what teachers know, believe and think’ (ibid, p. 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an 2013-14, essential role in music media the practice of teaching and teacher education. It is shaped by schooling (the teacher’s experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and questions professional coursework (the teacher’s experience gained in teacher education programs). Furthermore, teacher cognition is in dependence to contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. faced in music coursework the institutional context the college park questions 2013, teacher is employed in), and own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in an interactional relation to teacher learning and media coursework practice as it both informs them and writing with 11th online is informed through them.
It is important to uncover teachers’ beliefs in order to initiate reflection on own teaching and, consequently, to facilitate professional development. When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and professional development programs are likely to be ineffective because input (e.g. new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is unlikely to be transferred into classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to articulate them (Donaghue, 2003). Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of espoused theories which are in contrast to theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Among other instruments, the use of belief inventories (e.g. Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to explore teacher beliefs.
Donaghue (2003) has introduced an adapted version of the repertory grid technique to elicit teacher beliefs and assumptions (see Appendix A). Instead of using given constructs (as in questionnaires), in repertory grids participants develop and articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by Donaghue is loosely based on Kelly’s (1991) theory of personal construct, according to which an video coursework, individual makes sense of the world by generating constructs which shape an individual’s personal theory. Essay. Constructs are viewed as ‘dichotomous abstractions’ (ibid., p. 75), i.e. individuals perceive elements of their experience in such a way that they ‘never affirm anything without simultaneously denying something’ (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7). For example, an effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an ineffective teacher might be considered to be teaching without motivating students (example taken from Roberts, 1998, p. 31). Accordingly, in the repertory grid activity proposed by Donaghue (2003) the music video media coursework, participants are asked to compare three different people and to college 2013, affirm a construct in which two persons are alike, and media the third is different. The adapted version of the repertory grid was developed as an instrument to be used as an awareness-raising activity at the beginning of courses in teacher training or professional development. It aims at informing participants about their (often covert) beliefs and assumptions about plastic environment essays, language teaching. Differently from other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is related to coursework, an element.
For this reason, conclusion from results of the plastic, instrument must be drawn with caution. It is rather ‘a catalyst to thought and reflection’ (Donaghue, 2003, p. 350) than a research tool to music media coursework, gain generalisable results. Consequently, this study is media coursework, concerned with the applicability of the music coursework, instruments and not with the 2013-14, gained beliefs themselves. The study sought to find out how the adapted repertory grid by Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an instrument to elicit teacher beliefs by six teachers at a Turkish middle school. For this reason, the participants were asked to evaluate the instrument and it was intended to find out to what dimensions of teacher cognition the participants related their own beliefs to. It was assumed that the participants’ comments might be understood as an indicator for evaluating in how far the instrument is capable of music initiating reflective thinking. No less importantly, the participants’ perceptions might contribute to developing the app essays, instrument.
Following these considerations the video, study sought to essay douglass, answer the music video coursework, following questions: 1. How do the participants evaluate the elicitation technique used in music video media this study? 2. How do the participants perceive the elicitation technique for their professional development? The participants in this study were six teachers at video media coursework a private middle school in a southeastern city in Turkey. The pupils attending the school come from families belonging to the middle and upper middle class. In order to 2013-14, get some background information, the participants were asked to media coursework, fill in repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an evaluation of the plastic and the environment essays, activity some biographical information. Background of the Participants in the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years. 2 male 45 bachelor 17 years.
3 female 27 bachelor 4 years. 4 female 29 bachelor 7 years. 5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelor’s degree in ELT and vary in teaching experience as evidenced by the years of teaching. Participants 1, 3 and 5 have had exclusively worked at private schools while participant 4 had worked at a private teaching institution (dershane) for five years and participant 6 at a public school for three years before they started their current job at the private school. Participant 2 is of Syrian nationality. He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. Kuwait), and has been working at the private school for two years. Data Collection Procedures and music Tools.
The participants were invited to a session in which the activity was carried out. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. Donaghue, 2003, p. App Essays 2013-14. 347f.): 1. The researcher introduces the aim of the study and explains all steps. He also introduces the media, repertory grid activity and explains the environment essays, concept of music media personal constructs.
2. Essay. Participants are divided into media pairs. Each pair receives one set of cards containing the elements of the common, grid (cf. Appendix A). They think of a real person that matches the video media, element best. And The Environment. Participant A writes the video media, name of the in essay mla, person at the top of the card, participant B writes it at the bottom. For confidentiality, the participants are allowed to write a pseudonym if the partner knows the person. An example is given in music video media Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Card used in 11th edition repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Cards are shuffled. Media. Each participant is given a grid (Appendix A).
Pairs choose three cards at random, and individually think how two persons are similar and with a thesis edition online one is different writing their personal constructs in video the ‘construct’ column. Participants put a tick to the elements that are the same and 2013-14 a cross to the one that is different. 4. Pairs compare their constructs and discuss. 5. Pairs return the cards, shuffle them and repeat steps 3 and 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the end of the session, the participants were asked to media coursework, evaluate the 2013-14, repertory grid by media, completing the Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B). Each participant was interviewed separately. Use Quotes In Essay Mla. The aim of the semi-structured interview was to find out music coursework, if the repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in each of the participants. For this purpose, the participants were invited to comment on their beliefs (see questions in plastic environment essays Appendix C). The interviews were hold in English and audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed to prepare them for the data analysis.
During the repertory grid activity the researcher took field notes in order to document how the participants responded to video coursework, the activity. Four types of data were collected during the college, study: the repertory grids, the field notes, the repertory grid evaluation and video the transcription of the semi-structured interview. The repertory grids were not analysed in order to detect the writing with a thesis 11th online, participants’ beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to research the participants’ teacher beliefs (cf. the related remarks in music media coursework the introduction of this paper). The data gained from the other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in order to answer the research questions. For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009).
The coding categories were attributed to six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and suggestions. This section is organised as follows: It starts with the music media coursework, participants’ general evaluation of the repertory grid activity using data both from the repertory grid evaluation form and the interview as there were overlaps in the data coming from both collection tools. Media Coursework. Then, it is reported how the teachers related the activity to their learning experience (schooling and professional coursework) as well as past and current contexts and classroom practices. The participants’ views on how to with a thesis 11th edition online, use the elicited beliefs and music video suggestions on how to develop the instrument conclude this section. How did the common app essays 2013-14, participants evaluate the repertory grid activity in general?
All the participants gave positive comments on media coursework the activity in the repertory grid evaluation form, and music video these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in the interviews. The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of professional development, and its quality as an enjoyable activity. The activity as an Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the tool as a powerful instrument to elicit beliefs as the media coursework, elicitation process is based on essay douglass real people the participants are familiar with. Participant 1, for example, stated that she was not aware of the importance of music media social skills for teaching before the activity: I didn’t think about some of the qualities of my teachers, my colleagues (…) I didn’t think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. (…) For teaching being helpful, being kind to the students, listening to them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1). Two participants emphasised that that the procedure helped them to formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6).
Two participants pointed to the part during the activity when the teachers shared their constructs with a partner. They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the activity as the following excerpt from the interview illustrates: I learned much from the activity because one of my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by the way I learned them and I think this activity is something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, it’s just prepared for the profession and edition online our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the responses in the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the media coursework, activity as an elicitation tool, the activity was also perceived as incentive to college park, reflection, i.e. it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of music media beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to college essay, professional development: You think, you remember and coursework you evaluate yourself and the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of constructs is combined with comparison of three teachers (the elements), the activity forced the participants to challenge ideas. Participant 2 illustrates this by discussing a personality trait that is negatively connoted, but in music media fact might be valuable as a quality of a teacher: In my point of view I think I have to think again and again of so many things; for example one of the characteristics of the music video, teacher I ticked ‘ a strict teacher, for example, I learned a lot from a strict teacher in the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesn’t have to be laughing all the time with the kids in order to teach them. How To Use Quotes. Sometimes we have to be strict a little bit. Of course, we have to be patient, kind, friendly and so on.
But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for us teachers (Interview, participant 2). Participant 1 pointed to a further advantage of the activity: She said that she had difficulties to criticise other people or to be criticised. As the activity helped her to find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for music video people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the past and sometimes I laughed at those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the participants found can be confirmed by the researcher’s observations of the teachers’ active participation in the activity and the willingness to elaborate on video coursework their constructs in music the interviews; the following comment indicates that the feeling of enjoyment was linked to the perception of park essay contributing to professional development: It was enjoyable. I liked being a participant in such an activity. I want to make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one. I want to be a participant for my profession (Interview, participant 6).
What did the participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the interview was to find out to what areas in their past experience and/or current situation the participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by the participants would match those in the framework suggested by video media coursework, Borg (2003, p. 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in the all-embracing notion of teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and essay of frederick classroom practice. Media Coursework. The second question of the interview asked for the sources of the beliefs, but did not direct the participants to any of the college, areas teacher cognitions are located in. Table 2 displays to what areas the participants attributed their beliefs of music video coursework their own accord.
Participant’s Initial Attribution of park questions Beliefs to Areas. participant area mentioned initially. 1 professional coursework. 2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for their beliefs when asked initially. This does not mean that there were not any other sources for their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in the course of the interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by participants 2, 3 and 5 were foregrounded for music video media these teachers as they focused on how to in essay them extensively during the interview. The participants’ perceptions are reported in more detail in the following sections. Schooling was mentioned by music video media, using a concrete example by participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English.
She also talked about common 2013-14, one of her teachers who the video, pupils made fun of because of her glasses. The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in video media teaching. Two participants argued that the view of video schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in in essay their teachers in childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in a way, the teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in the interviews; on enquiry, the participants did not deny an influence of teacher education on their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for example by referring to their constructs in the repertory grid.
Participant 4 mentioned the name of one of her academic teachers at university who. taught a lot of things, he taught me to teach, he taught me how to behave towards the students. We learned by living, by acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the last sentence, indicates the importance of music video media not only plastic environment content but also of method in music video coursework teacher education. In the common 2013-14, interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on.
The participants claimed that their beliefs and assumptions were shaped by music video media, cultural norms and their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and that the context of private school had an influence on teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice. Two participants addressed the impact of culture; in their explanations they did not only refer to the teacher profession. The following excerpt summarises the responses: I think our beliefs come from our experiences, this is one of the sources ‘ one of them is our home. That is very important: How did our parents teach us in the past? The morals, the ethics and something like that; one source is our experience in and the essays life in general; one of them is our culture. For example, we are Muslims, our culture is different from that of others, from Jews or Christians or other people; one of them comes from our close friends ‘ the people we love. Sometimes we find good beliefs we didn’t believe in the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of teacher beliefs is perceived as not restricted to the immediate school context. Virtually all areas of life can contribute to professional beliefs.
A further contextual factor mentioned by the participants was the context of private school which was contrasted with public schools. Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and she linked her belief to a variety of conditions. According to her, public school teachers do not care about their students’ success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. grammar, than teaching the four language skills; they are not supervised by principals and parents do not come to school and ask about music video media, their children’s progress; additionally, public school teachers are ‘relaxed’ as concerns salary, which contributed to their attitude of indifference towards their profession. In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to the reduced amount of of frederick douglass class hours and restricted use of material in public schools on coursework the one hand and the willingness of private school students to learn English on common 2013-14 the other hand. Participant 1 said that she tried to do her best because she worked at a private school. What all these voices have in common is the music coursework, conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice. Similar as for schooling and a thesis edition professional coursework, the participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on beliefs and assumptions and consequently on teaching practice. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to change in student behaviour: I change my ideas because every generation is different (…) I have to change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year. So I have to be careful about everything during the lesson, after lesson and music video coursework before lesson.
So, they change my ideas, I can say day by day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the college park essay questions, participants make on how to use the video, elicited beliefs and to develop the activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on how to use the elicited beliefs in a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to do and how to behave in coursework the teacher profession. The participants mainly saw the activity as a starter to reflect and to challenge own teacher beliefs. Music Media. Some of the suggestions to and the essays, develop the activity in the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to be carried out in the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in which the participants summarise their strengths and weaknesses after the activity in a sentence. As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in music media coursework criticising and essay of frederick being criticised, and she linked her suggestion to that perception. She also suggested applying an music media, instrument to elicit learner beliefs to essay of frederick, get the view from the other side of the classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out about beliefs of public school teachers and even people from other than school contexts to get outsider views.
To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from different contexts was also suggested by music video, participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the contextual factors at public school had the potential to ‘produce’ ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the activity could be utilised in the classroom: Maybe we could add something to it [the activity], for example how to writing with a thesis 11th, make your students better, how to make them better students every day (…). Media. You can improve yourself, but you also have to think of the other part, I mean the park essay 2013, students. How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the attention of all of their students, so maybe the suggestions of the media coursework, colleagues can help us to a thesis edition online, do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to the part of the activity in which the music media, partners share their beliefs.
His comment indicates the need to douglass, work with the beliefs, not only by confirming or questioning them but also by media, transforming reflection on teacher beliefs into instructional practice. As regards the procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the activity not in written form by writing down constructs and putting ticks and crosses, but orally as interviews. That means teachers research their colleagues’ beliefs and elicit beliefs in dialogic form, and write their constructs afterwards. This suggestion is college park essay 2013, remarkable as the participant recognised the repertory grid technique as a form of video media coursework interview (cf. Fransella et al, 2004, p. 5: ‘The grid is plastic and the, perhaps best regarded as a particular form of structured interview’). So far the participants’ perceptions of the repertory grid have been reported. In the following section, conclusions are drawn and implications for second language teacher education are discussed.
This study was carried out to explore the elicitation process six middle school teachers at a Turkish private school went through. The participants evaluated the elicitation tool and reflected on their beliefs and the elicitation process. The elicitation tool, which was an adapted version of the music video, repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the participants perceived it as capable of eliciting beliefs and of frederick douglass acting as incentive to reflection about own beliefs. This is in line with the participant feedback reported in the study by Donaghue (2003). It qualifies the instrument for media further application, e.g. in pre-service or in-service. The fact that the activity was perceived as enjoyable is of particular relevance as the willingness of music video coursework teachers to music video media coursework, participate in professional development is not a matter of course (Karaaslan, 2003).
It was seen that the participants in this study gave a variety of app essays 2013-14 explanations and references while they were talking about the activity and their beliefs. However, some participants had more to say than others and different participants focused on different issues. This is not surprising when the ‘inconsistency’ of music coursework teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is e.g. strongly linked to an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an abstract idea) is taken under consideration, and it is also not surprising that, independently from use quotes mla each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. Music Video Media. culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in a void but in a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the question of what to do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point. She reports that a trainer in her study had the participants sort the constructs into positive and negative ones. One of the 11th online, participants in the current study suggested writing in a sentence what own strengths and weaknesses emerged from the activity. From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and label the emerging categories (labels might be ‘interpersonal traits’, ‘classroom management’, ‘approaches’. These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in music coursework a following course to trace changes in college park essay 2013 constructs under a theme or, for instance, in coursework order to writing a thesis 11th edition online, research in how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). From my personal experience I have gained in video media coursework this study, I believe it is inevitable to contrast the beliefs with what research has to how to, say about them. There has been an ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993).
In fact, reflective practice is necessary to video coursework, make theoretical knowledge accessible and theoretical knowledge is necessary to essay of frederick, evaluate practical reflection. The instrument dealt with in this study can contribute to bring reflection and theory together. Bandura, A. Coursework. (1986). Common App Essays. Social foundations of music video media coursework thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe and do. Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109.
Borg, S. (2006). Teacher cognition and with online language education. Research and practice. London: Continuum. Day, R. (1993). Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. University of Hawaii’s Working Papers in ESL, 11(2), 1’13.
Donaghue, H. (2003). An instrument to elicit teachers’ beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351. Fransella, F. Bell, R., Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Freeman, D. Media. (2002).
The hidden side of the how to mla, work: Teacher knowledge and learning to teach. Language Teacher 35(1), 1-13. Gabillon, Z. (2012). Revisiting foreign language teacher beliefs. Frontiers of Language and Teaching 3, 190-203.
Karaaslan, A. D. Music Video Media Coursework. (2003). College Essay Questions 2013. Teachers’ perceptions of music media coursework self-initiated professional development: a case study on Ba??kent University English language teachers (Unpublished MA dissertation.) Ba??kent University, Ankara. Retrieved 21 January, 2014 from: http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/1217736/index.pdf. Kelly, G. How To Mla. A. (1991). The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. 1: A theory of personality). London: Routledge. Lawes, S. (2003). What, when, how and why? Theory and foreign language teaching.
Language Learning Journal 28, 22-28. Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and video media coursework educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research 62(3), 307-332. Roberts, J. (1998). Language teacher education. New York: Arnold. Saldana, J. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Taggart, G.L., Wilson A.P. How To Use Quotes. (2005).
Promoting reflective thinking in teachers. 50 action strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. Thompson, N. Pascal, J. Music Video Coursework. (2012). Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives 13(2), 311-325. V??lez-Rend??n, G. (2002). Second language teacher education: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals 35(4), 457-467. Wallace, M. College Park Essay Questions. J. (1991). Video Media. Training foreign language teachers.
A reflective approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. (1997). Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didn’t learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher. Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation.
The aim of this study is to environment essays, have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and assumptions. Please fill in music video media coursework the requested information. Your responses and biographical information will remain anonymous and they will be used for this research only. Thank you for your cooperation. Academic qualification: ….. 2013-14. Bachelor’s degree ….. Master’s degree.
….. Doctorate degree Other; please specify. Number of years of teaching experience: ….. years. Number of years teaching at private/state school: ….. Music Video Coursework. years. Please evaluate the repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of this activity’? Appendix C: Semi-structured interview.
1. Of Frederick Douglass. Did this activity help you uncover and reflect on your attitude and beliefs about music coursework, teaching? 2. Do you have an idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the sources for your beliefs? 2.1. Can you identify beliefs coming from your own experience as a pupil/student? 2.2. Can you identify beliefs coming from and the environment essays your teacher education? 2.3. Can you identify beliefs coming from your own classroom experience? 2.4. Can you identify beliefs coming from your experience as a teacher at media (name of the school)?
3. What do we do with the constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to elicit teacher beliefs at the beginning of a development course) 4. Do you have any suggestions on how the activity could be changed or modified? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of writing edition us is qualified to music media, a high level in our area of expertise, and college essay questions 2013 we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.
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