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Summary of The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order Summary written by Hollie Hendrikson, Conflict Research Consortium. Citation: Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of designers, World Order . New York, NY: Simon and of going essay Schuster, 1996. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order is an expansion of the 1993 Foreign Affairs article written by Samuel Huntington that hypothesized a new post-Cold War world order. Prior to the end of the Cold War, societies were divided by ideological differences, such as the struggle between democracy and communism. Huntington's main thesis argues, The most important distinctions among peoples are [no longer] ideological, political, or economic. They are cultural (21). New patterns of essays on fashion designers, conflict will occur along the boundaries of different cultures and patterns of cohesion will be found within the cultural boundaries. Part One: A World of Civilizations. To begin his argument, Huntington refutes past paradigms that have been ineffective in explaining or predicting the reality of the grade 8 book, global political order. We need a map, Huntington says, that both portrays reality and simplifies reality in a way that best serves our purposes (31). Huntington develops a new Civilization paradigm to create a new understanding of the post-Cold War order, and to fill the gaps of the already existing paradigms.
To begin with, Huntington divides the world into eight major civilizations: Sinic: the common culture of China and Chinese communities in Southeast Asia. On Fashion. Includes Vietnam and Korea. Japanese: Japanese culture as distinctively different from the advantages of going, rest of Asia. Hindu: identified as the core Indian civilization. Islamic: Originating on the Arabian Peninsula, spread across North Africa, Iberian Peninsula and Central Asia.
Arab, Turkic, Persian and Malay are among the many distinct subdivisions within Islam. Essays On Fashion. Orthodox: centered in Russia. Separate from Western Christendom. Western: centered in Europe and North America. Latin American: Central and South American countries with a past of a corporatist, authoritarian culture. Majority of countries are of a Catholic majority. Africa: while the continent lacks a sense of doctoral quotes, a pan-African identity, Huntington claims that Africans are also increasingly developing a sense of African Identity. Following the explanations of the on fashion, separate civilizations in a thesis 11th edition online the new paradigm, Huntington describes the relations among civilizations. Before 1500 A.D., civilizations were separated geographically and the spread of ideas and technology took centuries. Huntington argues that research and technology are the catalyst for civilization creation and development. By 1500 A.D., evolution in ocean navigation by Western cultures led to rapid expansion and eventual domination of ideas, values, and religion.
Twentieth century relations among civilizations have moved beyond the unidirectional influence of the west on the rest. Instead, multidirectional interactions among all civilization has been maintained (53). In other words, cultural influence is interdependent; western civilizations influence and are influenced by smaller, less powerful civilizations around the world. Designers. Huntington then refutes the idea of a Western cultural hegemony and the concept of an established universal civilization. He states that global communications are dominated by the West and is a major source of the resentment and hostility of non-Western peoples against the West (59). The notion of a single, universal culture is not helpful creating an explanation or a description of global political order. However, Huntington also argues that as modernization increases cross-cultural communication, the similarities among cultures also increase. The key to this chapter is Huntington's severance of modernization from Westernization. While the world is becoming more modern, it is balanced master simultaneously becoming less Western, an idea he expands upon in part two of the book.
Part Two: The Shifting Balance of essays designers, Civilizations. Huntington starts this section by arguing that Western power and influence is doctoral writing fading. There are contrasting views on essays designers, the West's hold on power. One side argues that the and the, West sill has a monopoly on technological research and development, military strength, and economic consumption. The other side argues that the relative power and influence of Western countries is declining. Huntington adopts the latter view and describes three characteristics of the on fashion, Western decline: The current Western decline is a very slow process and is not an immediate threat to World powers today. Decline of power does not occur in a straight line; it may reverse, speed up, or pause.
The power of a state is controlled and influenced by the behavior and decisions of those holding power. Also in this section, Huntington asserts the increased role and importance of religion in world politics. Religion is the societal factor that has filled the vacuum created by a loss of political ideology. Writing Online. Major religions around the world experienced new surges in commitment, relevance and practice by erstwhile casual believers (96). Huntington goes on to say that replacing politics with religion was also the result of increased communication among societies and cultures. Essays On Fashion Designers. People need new sources of identity, new forms of of going, stable community, and new sets of moral precepts to on fashion provide them with a sense of meaning and purpose (97). Religion is able to of going essay meet these needs. Chapter five, Economics, Demography and the Challenger Civilizations , discusses the on fashion, relative rise in power and dissertation writing help influence of non-Western countries. Huntington specifically focuses on Japan, the Four Tigers (Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore), and China as countries, which asserted cultural relevance through economic successes. Asian societies are decreasingly responsive to United States demands and interests and [are] increasingly able to resist pressure from the U.S. or other Western countries (104).
The ability of Asian countries to successfully modernize and develop economically without adopting western values supports Huntington's assertion that the world is on fashion becoming more modernized, but less Westernized. Muslim societies, unlike Asian societies, have asserted cultural identity through the grade project, reaffirmation and resurgence of religion. Huntington argues that the resurgence of Islam embodies the acceptance of modernity, rejection of Western culture, and the recommitment to Islam as the guide to life in the modern world (110). On Fashion. Religion is the primary factor that distinguishes Muslim politics and society from other countries. Huntington also argues that the failure of state economies, the large young population, and the authoritarian style of governance have all contributed to the resurgence of Islam in society.
Part III: The Emerging Order of Civilizations. During the Cold War, the homework services, bipolar world order enabled countries to identify themselves as either aligned or non-aligned. Essays On Fashion. In the advantages essay, post-Cold War world order, countries are no longer able to easily categorize themselves and have entered into an identity crisis. To cope with this crisis, countries started rallying to those [cultures] with similar ancestry, religion, language, values, and institutions and distance themselves from on fashion those with different ones (126). Regional organizations have formed that reflect political and economic alliances. These include Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the European Union (EU) and the North American Fair Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Huntington also describes the idea of torn countries, or countries that have yet to entirely claim or create an identity.
These countries include Russia, Turkey, Mexico, and Australia. Huntington discusses the new structure of online, civilizations as centered around a small number of powerful core states. Culture commonality legitimates the on fashion, leadership and order-imposing role of the core states for both member state and core external powers and institutions (156). Examples of core states are France and Germany for the EU. Their sphere of influence ends where Western Christendom ends. In other words, civilizations are strictly bound to religious affiliation. Huntington argues that the Islamic civilization, which he identified earlier in the book, lacks a core state and is the factor that disallows these societies to a thesis edition online successfully develop and modernize. The remainder of this section goes into great detail to explain the different divisions of on fashion designers, core states throughout the world. Huntington predicts and describes the great clashes that will occur among civilizations.
First, he anticipates a coalition or cooperation between Islamic and Sinic cultures to work against a common enemy, the West. Three issues that separate the and the, West from the rest are identified by Huntington as: The West's ability to maintain military superiority through the nonproliferation of essays on fashion designers, emerging powers. The promotion of advantages to university, Western political values such as human rights and democracy. The Restriction of non-Western immigrants and refugees into Western societies. Non-Western countries see all three aspects as the on fashion, Western countries attempt to enforce and maintain their status as the statistics services, cultural hegemony. Essays On Fashion. In the chapter The Global Politics of Civilizations , Huntington predicts the conflict between Islam and the West to be a small, fault line war, and the conflict between the America and China having the potential to be an intercivilizational war of core states (207). Islam and grade 8 book project the West. Huntington goes into on fashion designers, a brief historical explanation of the conflictual nature of Islam and 8 book report project Christianity and on fashion then lists five factors that have exacerbated conflict between the two religions in the late twentieth century.
These factors are: the Muslim population growth has generated large numbers of unemployed and dissatisfied youth that become recruits to Islamic causes, the recent resurgence of Islam has given Muslims a reaffirmation of the relevance of Islam compared to other religions, the plastic and the essays, West's attempt to universalize values and essays designers institutions, and statistics homework services maintain military superiority has generated intense resentment within Muslim communities, without the common threat of communism, the West and Islam now perceive each other as enemies, and increased communication and interaction between Islam and the West has exaggerated the perceived differences between the on fashion, two societies (211). Asia, China, and America. Economic development in Asia and China has resulted in an antagonistic relationship with America. Doctoral Quotes. As discussed in previous sections, economic success in Asia and China has created an increased sense of cultural relevancy. Huntington predicts that the combination of economic success of the essays on fashion designers, East Asian countries and the heightened military power of China could result in a major world conflict. This conflict would be intensified even more by grade 8 book report alignments between Islamic and Sinic civilizations. The end of chapter nine provides a detailed diagram (The Global Politics of Civilizations: Emerging Alliances) which helps explain the complexity of the political relationships in essays on fashion the post-Cold War era (245).
Huntington defines the Soviet-Afghan war and the First Gulf War as the emergence of civilization wars. Huntington interprets the Afghan War as a civilization war because it was seen as the first successful resistance to a foreign power, which boosted the self-confidence, and power of many fighters in the Islamic world. The war also left behind an uneasy coalition of Islamic organizations intent on promoting Islam against with online, all non-Muslim forces (247). In other words, the war created a generation of fighters that perceived the West to be a major threat to their way of life. The First Gulf War was a Muslim conflict in which the West intervened; the on fashion, war was widely opposed by advantages of going essay non-Westerners and designers widely supported by Westerners.
Huntington states that Islamic fundamentalist groupsaA??’A?a‚¬A?A?A?A?a‚¬A?A‚A¬¦denounced [the war] as a war against 'Islam and its civilization' by an alliance of 'Crusaders and Zionists' and proclaimed their backing of Iraq in the face of 'military and statistics economic aggression against its people (249). The war was interpreted as a war of us vs. them; Islam v. Christianity. To better understand the definition of the fault line between civilizations, Huntington provides a description of characteristics and essays dynamics of fault line conflicts. They can be described by doctoral dissertation writing the following: Communal conflicts between states or groups from different civilizations Almost always between people of different religions Prolonged duration Violent in nature Identity wars (us vs. them), eventually breaks down to religious identity Encouraged and financed by Diaspora communities Violence rarely ends permanently Propensity for essays on fashion peace is increased with third party intervention. Part V: The Future of Civilizations. In the concluding sections of his book, Huntington discusses the dissertation writing, challengers of the on fashion designers, West, and whether or not external and internal challenges will erode the West's power. External challenges include the statistics services, emerging cultural identities in the non-Western world. Internal challenges include the essays on fashion designers, erosion of principle values, morals, and environment beliefs within Western culture. He also contributes to the debate between multiculturalists and monoculturalists and states that, A multicultural world is unavoidable because global empire is impossible. The preservation of the United States and the West requires the renewal of essays, Western identity (318).
The ability for the West to remain a global political power, it needs to advantages essay adapt to increasing power and influence of different civilizations. Without adapting, the West is destined to decline in power and influence, or it will clash with other powerful civilizations. According to Huntington, the West clashing with another civilization is the essays, greatest threat to world peace, and an international order (321). Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site. You can also still use the balanced, old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to essays designers constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible.
Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Concrete and thesis realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and essays designers discuss strategies for with a thesis edition online more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. Brief readings and designers videos which highlight the conflict and advantages of going to university peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks – ideas which help people address both tractable and intractable conflicts more effectively.
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Essay on Demand and Law of Demand. In this essay we will discuss about demand and law of demand. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Demand 2. Factors Affecting Demand 2. An Individual’s Demand Schedule and Curve 3. Market Demand Schedule and Curve 4. Changes in Demand 5. Meaning of Law in Demand 6. Assumptions of Law of Demand 7. Exceptions to the Law of Demand 8. On Fashion? Essay on Income Demand and Other Details. Essay on the Meaning of Demand Essay on Factors Affecting Demand Essay on an Individual’s Demand Schedule and Curve Essay on the Market Demand Schedule and Curve Essay on the Changes in Demand Essay on Meaning of Law of Demand Essay on Assumptions of Law of Demand Essay on Exceptions to the Law of Demand Essay on Income Demand Essay on Cross Demand Essay on Short-Run and Long-Run Demand Curves Essay on Defects of Utility Analysis or Demand Curve. The demand for essays, a commodity is its quantity which consumers are able and willing to buy at various prices during a given period of time. So, for a commodity to have demand the essays, consumer must possess willingness to buy it, the ability or means to buy it, and it must be related to statistics homework services per unit of time i.e. per essays on fashion designers day, per week, per month or per year. Demand is a function of price (p), income (y), prices of related goods (pr) and tastes (t) and is expressed as D = f(p, y, pr, t). When income, prices of related goods and tastes are given, the demand function is D = f (p). It shows the quantities of a commodity purchased at given prices. In the with 11th online, Marshallian analysis, the other determinants of demand are taken as given and constant. Essay # 2. Factors Affecting Demand : The factors which determine the level of demand for any commodity are the following:
The higher the price of a commodity, the designers, lower the quantity demanded. Scorecard Master Thesis? The lower the price, the higher the quantity demanded. b. Prices of other Commodities: There are three types of commodities in this context. If a rise (or fall) in the price of one commodity leads to an increase (or decline) in the demand for another commodity, the two commodities are said to be substitutes. In other words, substitutes are those commodities which satisfy similar wants, such as tea and coffee. If the on fashion, price of coffee falls, the demand for coffee rises which brings a fall in the demand for tea because the consumers of tea shift their demand to coffee which has become cheaper. On the other hand, if the price of coffee rises, its demand will fall.
But the of going to university essay, demand for tea will rise because the consumers of coffee will shift their demand to tea. Where the demand for two commodities is linked to each other, such as cars and petrol, bread and butter, tea and on fashion designers sugar, etc., they are said to be complementary goods. Complementary goods are those which cannot be used without each other. If, say, the price of cars rises and plastic essays they become expensive, the demand for them will fall and so will the demand for petrol. On the contrary, if the price of cars falls and they become cheaper, the demand for them will increase and so will the demand for on fashion, petrol. If the two commodities are unrelated, say refrigerator and advantages to university essay bicycle, a change in essays on fashion designers the price of of going to university essay, one will have no effect on the quantity demanded of the other. A rise in essays the consumer’s income raises the demand for a commodity, and a fall in his income reduces the demand for it. When there is a change in the tastes of writing quotes, consumers in favour of essays on fashion designers, a commodity, say due to fashion, its demand will rise, with no change in its price, in the Demand Schedule prices of other commodities, and in the income of the consumer. On the essays, other hand, change in tastes against a commodity leads to a fall in its demand, other factors affecting demand remaining unchanged.
Essay # 3. An Individual’s Demand Schedule and Curve: An individual consumer’s demand refers to the quantities of a commodity demanded by him at various prices, other things remaining equal (y, pr and t). Essays Designers? An individual’s demand for a commodity is shown on the demand schedule and on the demand curve. A demand schedule is a list of prices and quantities and its graphic representation is a demand curve. The demand schedule reveals that when the price is Rs.6, the quantity demanded is 10 units. If the project, price happens to be Rs.5, the quantity demanded is 20 units, and so on. In figure 1 DD 1 is the demand curve drawn on the basis of the above demand schedule. The dotted points P, Q, R, S, T and U show the various price-quantity combinations.
Marshall calls them “demand points” . Essay # 4. The Market Demand Schedule and Curve: In a market, there is not one consumer but many consumers of a commodity. Essays Designers? The market demand of a commodity is depicted on a demand schedule and a demand curve. They show the sum total of and the environment, various quantities demanded by all the individuals at various prices. Suppose there are three individuals A, and essays on fashion in a market who purchase the doctoral dissertation quotes, commodity.
The demand schedule for the commodity is depicted in Table 2 The last column (5) of the Table represents the market demand of the commodity at various prices. It is arrived at by adding columns (2), (3) and (4) representing the demand of essays, consumers A, and environment respectively. The relation between columns (1) and essays on fashion designers (5) shows the market demand schedule. When the price is very high, Rs.6 per kg, the grade report project, market for the commodity is 70 kgs. As the price falls, the on fashion, demand increases. When the price is the lowest, Re. 1 per kg., the statistics homework services, market demand per week is 360 kg.
From Table 2 we draw the market demand curve in essays on fashion designers Figure 2. Advantages? D M is the market demand curve which is the horizontal summation of all the individual demand curves D A + D B + D c . The market demand for a commodity depends on all factors that determine an on fashion designers, individual’s demand. But a better way of drawing a market demand curve is to add together sideways (lateral summation) of all the individual demand curves. In this case, the different quantities demanded by consumers at one price are represented on advantages of going essay, each individual demand curve and then a lateral summation is done, as shown in Figure 3. Suppose there are three individuals A, and in a market who buy OA. OB and quantities of the commodity at the price OP, as shown in Panels (A), (B) and (C) respectively in Figure 3. In the essays on fashion, market, OQ quantities will be bought which is dissertation writing help, made up by adding together the quantities OA, OB and . The market demand curve, D M is obtained by the lateral summation of the individual demand curves D A ,D B and D c in Panel (D).
This figure is not based on Table 2. An individual’s demand curve is drawn on the assumption that factors such as prices of other commodities, income and tastes influencing his demand remain constant. What happens to an individual’s demand curve if there is a change in any one of the factors affecting his demand, the essays, other factors remaining constant? When any one of the factors changes, the entire demand curve shifts. When an individual’s money income rises, other factors remaining constant, his demand curve for a commodity will shift upwards to the right. He will buy more of the commodity at a given price, as shown in Figure 4. Before the rise in his income, the consumer is buying OQ quantity at OP price on the D 1 D 1 , demand curve. With the increase in income, his demand curve D 1 D 1 shifts to the right as D 2 D 2 He now buys more quantity OQ 2 , at the same price OP.
When the consumer buys more of the commodity at a given price, this is called increase in demand. On the contrary, if his income falls, his demand curve will shift to the left. He will buy less of the commodity at to university, the same price, as shown in Figure 5. Before the fall in his income, the consumer is on the demand curve D 1 D 1 where he is buying OQ 1 of the commodity at OP price. He now buys less quantity OP price at the given price OP. When the consumer buys less of the commodity at a given price, this is called decrease in demand.
Thus when the demand for a commodity changes due to a change in some other factor (taste, habit, income, etc.) other than its own price, it is called increase or decrease in demand. A movement along a demand curve takes place when there is a change in the quantity demanded due to a change in the commodity’s own price. It is called extension or contraction in demand. This is illustrated in Figure 6 which shows that when the price is OP 1 the quantity demanded is OQ 1 .With the designers, fall in price, there has been a downward movement along the same demand curve D 1 D 1 from point A to B. This is known as extension in demand. On the contrary, if we take as the original price-demand point, then a rise in the price from OP 2 , to OP 1 leads to a fall in the quantity demanded from OQ 2 to OO 1 .The consumer moves upwards along the same demand curve D 1 D 1 from writing 11th, point to A. Essays Designers? This is known as contraction in demand.
Essay # 6. Meaning of grade 8 book report project, Law of Demand: The law of demand expresses a relationship between the quantity demanded and its price. It may be defined in Marshall’s words as “the amount demanded increases with a fall in price, and diminishes with a rise in price.” Thus it expresses an inverse relation between price and demand. The law refers to the direction in which quantity demanded changes with a change in price. On Fashion Designers? On the with online, figure, it is represented by the slope of the demand curve which is on fashion, normally negative throughout its length.
The inverse price-demand relationship is based on other things remaining equal. This phrase points towards certain important assumptions on which this law is grade 8 book report, based. Essay # 7. Assumptions of Law of Demand: These assumptions are: (i) There is no change in the tastes and preferences of the consumer; (ii) The income of the consumer remains constant; (iii) There is no change in customs; (iv) The commodity to be used should not confer distinction on the consumer; (v) There should not be any substitutes of the commodity; (vi) There should not be any change in the prices of other products; (vii) There should not be any possibility of change in the price of the product being used; (viii) There should not be any change in the quality of the product; and. (ix) The habits of the consumers should remain unchanged. Given these conditions, the law of demand operates. If there is change even in one of these conditions, it will stop operating, Explain the law with the help of Table 1 and Figure 1.
Essay # 8. Exceptions to the Law of Demand : In certain cases, the demand curve slopes up from left to right, i. e., it has a positive slope. Essays? Under certain circumstances, consumers buy more when the price of a commodity rises and less when price falls, as shown by the D curve in Figure 7. Many causes are attributed to an upward sloping demand curve. If shortage is feared in anticipation of scorecard master, war, people may start buying for building stocks or for hoarding even when the price rises. During a depression, the prices of commodities are very low and the demand for essays designers, them is also less. Homework Services? This is because of the essays, lack of grade 8 book report, purchasing power with consumers. (iii) Giffen Paradox:
If a commodity happens to be a necessity of life like wheat and its price goes up, consumers are forced to curtail the consumption of more expensive foods like meat and fish, and wheat being still the cheapest food they will consume more of it. The Marshallian example is applicable to developed economies. It the case of an underdeveloped economy, with the fall in the price of an essays designers, inferior commodity like maize, consumers will start consuming more of the superior commodity like wheat. As a result, the demand for maize will fall. This is what Marshall called the Giffen Paradox which makes the demand curve to have a positive slope. (iv) Demonstration Effect: If consumers are affected by the principle of conspicuous consumption or demonstration effect, they will like to buy more of those commodities which confer distinction on thesis, the possessor, when their prices rise. On the other hand, with the fall in the prices of such articles, their demand falls, as is the case with diamonds. (v) Ignorance Effect:
Consumers buy more at a higher price under the essays, influence of the “ignorance effect”, where a commodity may be mistaken for some other commodity, due to deceptive packing, label, etc. Marshall mentions speculation as one of the important exceptions to 8 book project the downward sloping demand curve. According to him, the law of demand does not apply to on fashion the demand in a campaign between groups of with a thesis 11th edition, speculators. When a group unloads a great quantity of a thing on to the essays on fashion, market, the price falls and the other group begins buying it. When it has raised the price of the thing, it arranges to sell a great deal quietly. Thus when price rises, demand also increases. Essay # 7. Exceptions to plastic essays the Law of essays designers, Demand: In certain cases, the demand curve slopes up from left to right, i.e., it has a positive slope. Under certain circumstances, consumers buy more when the price of a commodity rises, and less when price falls, as shown by the D curve in plastic and the environment essays Figure 7. Many causes are attributed to an upward sloping demand curve. 1. The law of demand is based on the law of Diminishing Marginal Utility.
According to this law, when a consumer buys more units of a commodity, the marginal utility of that commodity continues to essays designers decline. Therefore, the consumer will buy more units of that commodity only when its price falls. When fewer units are available, utility will be high and plastic the consumer will be prepared to pay more for the commodity. This proves that the essays, demand will be more at with 11th edition, a lower price and it will be less at a higher price. That is essays, why the demand curve is downward sloping. 2. Every commodity has certain consumers but when its price falls, new consumers start consuming it, as a result demand increases.
On the contrary, with the increase in the price of the product, many consumers will either reduce or stop its consumption and the demand will be reduced. Thus, due to the price effect when consumers consume more or less of the commodity, the demand curve slopes downward. 3. When the price of a commodity falls, the real income of the consumer increases because he has to spend less in balanced scorecard master thesis order to buy the designers, same quantity. On the contrary, with the rise in the price of the commodity, the doctoral dissertation writing, real income of the consumer falls. This is called the income effect. Designers? Under the influence of this effect, with the writing with 11th, fall in the price of the commodity the consumer buys more of it and also spends a portion of the increased income in essays designers buying other commodities. For instance, with the fall in the price of milk, he will buy more of it but at grade 8 book report project, the same time, he will increase the demand for essays on fashion designers, other commodities. On the other hand, with the increase in writing a thesis 11th online the price of milk he will reduce its demand.
The income effect of a change in the price of an ordinary commodity being positive, the demand curve slopes downward. 4. Essays? The other effect of change in the price of the commodity is the substitution effect. Doctoral Writing Help Quotes? With the fall in the price of a commodity, the prices of essays on fashion designers, its substitutes remaining the balanced master thesis, same, consumers will buy more of this commodity rather than the substitutes. As a result, its demand will increase. On the contrary, with the rise in the price of the commodity (under consideration) its demand will fall, given the prices of the substitutes. For instance, with the fall in the price of tea, the price of coffee being unchanged, the demand for tea will rise, and contrariwise, with the increase in the price of tea, its demand will fall. 5. There are persons in different income groups in every society but the majority is in low income group.
The downward sloping demand curve depends upon this group. Ordinary people buy more when price falls and less when price rises. The rich do not have any effect on the demand curve because they are capable of buying the same quantity even at a higher price. 6. There are different uses of on fashion designers, certain commodities and services that are responsible for the negative slope of the demand curve. With the increase in the price of such products, they will be used only for more important uses and their demand will fall. On the dissertation writing quotes, contrary, with the fall in price, they will be put to various uses and their demand will rise. For instance, with the increase in the electricity charges, power will be used primarily for domestic lighting, but if the essays on fashion designers, charges are reduced, people will use power for cooking, fans, heaters, etc..
Things that are assumed to remain equal are the price of the commodity in question, the prices of related commodities, and the tastes, preferences and dissertation habits of the consumer for it. The income-demand function for a commodity is written as D = f (y). The income-demand relationship is usually direct. The demand for the commodity increases with the rise in designers income and decreases with the and the environment, fall in income, as shown in Figure 8. Designers? When income is OI, the quantity demanded is OQ and when income rises to OI 1 the quantity demanded also increases to of going to university essay OQ 1 . The reverse case can also be shown likewise. Thus, the income demand curve ID has a positive slope.
But this slope is in the case of normal goods. Let us take the case of a consumer who is in the habit of essays on fashion designers, consuming an inferior good. Statistics Services? So long as his income remains below a particular level of his minimum subsistence, he will continue to buy more of this inferior goods even when his income increases by small increments. But when his income starts rising above that level, he reduces his demand for the inferior good. In Figure 8 (B), OI is the minimum subsistence level of essays, income where he buys IQ of the commodity. Up to this level, this commodity is a normal good for him so that he increases its consumption from I 1 Q 1 to I 2 Q 2 to when his income rises gradually from doctoral help quotes, OI to OI and to OI 2 As his income rises above OI 2 , he starts buying less of the commodity. For instance, at OI 3 income level, he buys I 3 Q 3 which is less than I 2 Q 2 . Let us now take the case of related goods and how the change in the price of one affects the essays, demand of the other. This is advantages to university essay, known as cross demand and is written as D=f (pr). Related goods are of two types, substitutes and complementary. In the case of substitute or competitive goods, a rise in essays on fashion the price of one good A raises the demand for the other good B, the price of remaining the same.
The opposite holds in the case of a fall in the price of A when the balanced thesis, demand for falls. Figure 9 (A) illustrates it. When the price of good A increases from OA to OA, the quantity of good also increases from OB to OB 1 The cross demand curve CD for substitutes is positively sloping. For with the rise in the price of A, the consumer will shift their demand to , since the price of remains unchanged. It is also assumed here that the incomes, tastes, preferences, etc. of the on fashion, consumers do not change. In case the two goods are complementary or jointly demanded, a rise in the price of one good A will bring a fall in the demand for good B. Conversely, a fall in the price of environment essays, A will raise the demand for A This is illustrated in on fashion Figure 9 (B) where when the price of A falls from OA 1 to OA, the demand for B increases from OB to with a thesis 11th online OB. The demand curve in the case of complementary goods is negatively sloping like the: ordinary demand curve. If however, the two goods are independent, a change in the price of A will have no effect on the demand for B. Essays Designers? We seldom study the relation between two unrelated goods like wheat and chairs. Mostly as consumers, we are concerned with the price-demand relation of substitutes and complementary goods.
Essay # 10. Report Project? Short-Run and Long-Run Demand Curves: Distinction may be made between short-run and long-run demand curves. Essays Designers? In the case of perishable commodities such as vegetables, fruit, milk, etc., the change in quantity demanded to a change in price occurs quickly. For such commodities, there is a single demand curve with the usual negative slope.
But in the case of durable commodities such as gadgets, machines, clothes, and others, a change in price will not have its ultimate effect on the quantity demanded until the existing stock of the commodity is adjusted which may take a long time. A short-run demand curve shows the change in quantity demanded to and the essays a change in price, given the existing stock of the durable commodity and essays designers the supplies of its substitutes. On the other hand, the to university, long-run demand curve shows the change in quantity demanded to a change in price after all adjustments have been made in essays the long-run. The relation between the short-run and long-run demand curves is shown in Figure 10. Suppose initially consumers are fully adjusted to OP 1 price and OQ 1 quantity demanded with equilibrium at point on plastic and the, the short-run demand curve D 1 . Now assume that price falls to OP 2 . In the short-run, consumers will react along the D 1 curve and increase the quantity demanded to OQ 2 with equilibrium at point E 2 . After the lapse of some time when adjustments are made to on fashion designers the new price OP 2 , a new equilibrium will be reached at point with quantity demanded at balanced master, OQ 3 . There will be now a new short-run demand curve D 2 passing through point E 3 . A further fall in on fashion designers the price to would first lead to a short-run’ equilibrium at point E 4 with OQ 4 quantity demanded and ultimately to a new equilibrium at point E 5 with OQ 5 . Quantity demanded on the short-run-demand curve, D 3 A. line passing through the final equilibrium points E 1 , E 3 and E 5 at each price traces out the long-run demand curve D 3 . The long-run demand curve D L is flatter than the short-run demand curves D 1 , D 2 and D 3 . Essay # 11. And The Environment? Defects of Utility Analysis or Demand Curve: a. Utility cannot be Measured Cardinally: The entire Marshallian utility analysis is based on the hypothesis that utility is cardinally measured in ‘utils’ or units and that utility can be added and subtracted For instance, when a consumer takes the first chapati. He gets utility equivalent to 15 units; from the second and third chapati 10 and 5 units respectively and when he consumes the fourth chapati marginal utility becomes zero. If it is supposed that he has no desire after the fourth chapati, the essays on fashion, utility from the fifth will be negative 5 units if he takes this chapati. In this way, the total utility in each case will be 15, 25, 30 and 30, when from the balanced scorecard master thesis, fifth chapati the total utility will be 25 (30-5). Besides, the utility analysis is based on this assumption that the designers, consumer is aware of his preferences and is capable of comparing them.
For example, if the utility of one apple is master thesis, 10 units, of a banana 20 units and of an orange 40 units, it means that the on fashion designers, consumer gives twice the preference to banana as against apple and four times to orange. It shows that utility is transitive. Hicks opine that the basis of the utility analysis, that it is measurable, is to university, defective because utility is a subjective and psychological concept which cannot be measured cardinally. In reality, it can be measured ordinally. b. Single Commodity Model is Unrealistic: The utility analysis is designers, a single commodity model in advantages of going to university which the utility of one commodity is regarded independent of the essays designers, other.
Marshall considered substitutes and complementaries as one commodity, but it makes the utility analysis unrealistic. For instance, tea and coffee are substitute products. When there is a change in the stock of any one product, there is statistics homework services, change in the marginal utility of essays on fashion, both the of going essay, products. Suppose there is increase in essays designers the stock of homework, tea. There will not only be fall in the marginal utility of tea but also of coffee. Similarly, a change in the stock of coffee will bring a change in the marginal utility of both coffee and tea. The effect of one commodity on the other, and vice versa is called the cross effect. The utility analysis neglects the cross effects of substitutes, complementaries and unrelated goods. Designers? This makes the utility analysis unrealistic. To overcome it, Hicks constructed the two-commodity model in the indifference curve approach. c. Doctoral Dissertation Help Quotes? Money is an Imperfect Measure of on fashion designers, Utility:
Marshall measured utility in terms of money, but money is an incorrect and imperfect measure of utility because the value of money often changes. Homework Services? If there is fall in the value of money, the consumer will not be getting the same utility from the homogeneous units of a commodity at different times. Fall in the value of money is a natural consequence of rise in prices. Again, if two consumers spend the essays on fashion designers, same amount of money at a time, they will not be getting equal utilities because the amount of utility depends upon of going to university essay the intensity of desire of on fashion designers, each consumer for the commodity. For instance, consumer A may be getting more utility than by spending the same amount of money, if his intensity of desire for the commodity is greater.
Thus, money is an imperfect and unreliable measuring rod of utility. d. Marginal Utility of Money is not Constant: The utility analysis assumes the marginal utility of environment essays, money to be constant. Marshall supported this argument on the plea that a consumer spends only a small portion of his income on a commodity at a time so that there is an insignificant reduction in the stock of the remaining amount of money. On Fashion Designers? But the fact is that a consumer does not buy only one commodity but a number of commodities at a time. In this way, when a major part of his income is spent on buying commodities, the marginal utility of the remaining stock of money increases. For instance, every consumer spends a major portion of his income in the first week of the scorecard thesis, month to meet his domestic requirements. After this, he spends the remaining amount of money wisely It implies that the utility of the remaining sum of money has increased.
Thus the essays on fashion, assumption that the marginal utility of money remains constant is away from reality and makes this analysis hypothetical. The utility analysis is based on the assumption that the consumer is rational who prudently buys the commodity and has the plastic, capacity to calculate the disutility’s and utilities of different commodities, and designers buys only those units which give him greater utility. This assumption is also unrealistic because no consumer compares the utility and a thesis edition disutility from essays, each unit of a commodity while buying it. Rather, he buys them under the influence of his desires, tastes or habits. Moreover consumer s income and prices of commodities also influence his purchases. Thesis? Thus the on fashion designers, consumer does not buy commodities rationally.
This makes the utility analysis unrealistic and impracticable. f. Utility Analysis does not Study Income Effect, Substitution Effect and Price Effect: The greatest defect in the utility analysis is that it ignores the balanced scorecard master thesis, study of income effect, substitution effect and price effect. The utility analysis does not explain the effect of a rise or fall in the income of the consumer on the demand for essays on fashion, the commodities. It thus neglects the income effect. Again, when with the change in the price of one commodity there is a relative change in dissertation writing quotes the price of the other commodity, the on fashion, consumer substitute’s one for the other.
This is the substitution effect which the utility analysis fails to discuss, being based on. Besides when the advantages to university essay, price of one commodity changes, there is a change in its demand and in the demand for related goods. This is the on fashion, price effect which is also ignored by the utility analysis. When say, the price of good X falls the utility analysis only tells us that its demand will increase. But it fails to analyse the of going essay, income and substitution effects of essays, a price fall via the increase in the real income of the thesis, consumer. g. Utility Analysis fails to clarify the Study of essays on fashion, Inferior and Giffen Goods: Marshall’s utility analysis of doctoral writing quotes, demand does not clarify the fact as to why a fall in the prices of inferior and Giffen goods leads to a decline in their demand.
Marshall failed to explain this paradox because the utility analysis does not discuss the income and substitution effects of the price effect. This makes the Marshallian law of demand incomplete. h. The Assumption that the Consumer buys more Units of a Commodity when its Price falls is Unrealistic: The utility analysis of demand is based on the assumption that the consumer buys more units of essays on fashion designers, a commodity when its price falls. It may be true in the case of food products like oranges, bananas, apples, etc. but not in writing with 11th edition the case of durable goods. When, for example, the price of on fashion, a bicycle or radio falls, a consumer will not buy two or three bicycles or radios. It is another thing that a rich man may buy two or three cars pairs of shoes and variety of clothes, etc. But he does so irrespective of the fall in their prices because he is rich. The argument, therefore, does not hold good in writing 11th the case of an ordinary person. i. This Analysis fails to explain the Demand for Indivisible Goods:
The utility analysis breaks down in the case of durable consumer goods like scooters, transistors, radio, etc. because they are indivisible. The consumer buys only one unit of such commodities at a time so that it is neither possible to calculate the marginal utility of one unit nor can the demand schedule and the demand curve for that goods be drawn. Hence the like Hicks, to essays on fashion explain the demand analysis of the consumer with the help of indifference curve approach. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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Change management essay on McDonalds. Change management can be defined as ‘the process of continually renewing an organisation’s direction, structure, and capabilities to serve the ever changing needs to external and internal customers’ (Moran and Brightman, 2001). As per Burnes (2004) change is a feature which is always present in the life of organisation. It exist both at operational and strategic level. On Fashion? The organisation is aware about where the writing a thesis 11th edition online, change is required and is fully capable of planning and implementing these changes in its structure .According to on fashion Burnes 2004; Rieley and Clarkson, 2001, the organisations strategy and organisational strategies are something which goes hand in 8 book report, hand and cannot be separated. In the essays designers, words of Graetz, 2000, ‘Against a backdrop of grade 8 book report, increasing globalisation, deregulation, the rapid pace of technological innovation, a growing knowledge of essays on fashion designers, workforce, and shifting social and demographic trends, few would dispute that the primary task of management today is leadership of organisational change.’ In early times the theories believed that if the organisation keeps changing management system then it can no longer run effectively nor can it make any improvement in performance (Rieley and Clarkson, 2001). It was believed that the company had to bring new management theory into routine in order to achieve efficiency and improvement in the performance. This Means that an organisation has to give ample time for a particular change to advantages of going essay be adopted and settle down in daily routine so that it can be run in efficient manner (Luecke, 2003).However in today’s time It is believed that staff of the organisation should go through continuous change to achieve efficiency (burnes, 2004; Rieley and Clarkson, 2001) According to Grundy, 1993 ‘change which is marked by on fashion designers, rapid shifts in strategy, structure or culture, or in all three.’ Senior, 2002 adds to it saying that this kind of sudden change or implementation can be caused only due to malfunctioning of the internal structure or it can be caused due to external pressure. Every organisation is looking to 8 book project move forward by implanting a management system with will boost organisations strength and capability, enhancing its competitiveness.
An organisation has to deal with unforeseen situations in today’s highly competitive environment and to deal with this it has to be more flexible and ready for any situational changes that it will have to on fashion designers make, like adoption of new technology or some latest development in theory for current market. In the fast moving economic environment there continuous changes in the type of technology, the way the product is marketed, trends etc. the organisation has to be more flexible to adopt changes in master, order to remain competitive in the global market. Change can be good in a way; it can make complex work very simple and helps to improve lives through new innovations. Organisations bring change in their working structures to essays on fashion designers be more competitive and providing the best to advantages essay their customers. As per Carlpio (1998) change is something to do with implementation of new innovative ways of doing things, enabling the room for designers, improvement in the system through practice. Doctoral Help Quotes? Number of changes can be introduced in the system but the one which brings success to essays designers the organisation is considered to a thesis online be the most important one of all. A change in management system is important specially when a particular system which the running organisation is facing difficulties or has some problems with it. On Fashion Designers? Changes are brought in to improve the organisations performance. Changes are mostly brought due to forces which can be internal or external yee, 1998. Doctoral Writing Quotes? Changes can be brought at different level of an organisation (Swenson, 1997) The modification needed or which can be done maybe many or quite a few (Reigeluth, 1994). There could be various factors for change (Bamford and Forrester, 2003).
Change can be either internal or external. External include new technology which is current requirement of the on fashion designers, industry or trend in the current economy which may have direct impact on profitability of the business. A structured method of change was adopted in 1946 by Lewin (Bamford and Forrester, 2003) what lewin had to say was something different than the old theories, he mentioned that in order to apply any new theory or change management an organisation will have to first discard it’s old management structure or system. Plastic And The Environment? Management of changes pays a role in identifying objectives of the essays on fashion, organisation and then sets goals accordingly. Its role is to implement new changes in the organisation in 8 book, which it can be noticed that these changes ultimately bring innovations. On Fashion Designers? The first step towards organisational change is to doctoral writing understand the requirements of the organisation and issues with the current management structure. The purpose of the paper is to provide insight of change management process in the chosen company which is McDonalds and essays on fashion designers provide solution and recommendation for the same. McDonalds is a company with mile stones of success which was started in 1954 by Ray Kroc as a burger shop which was then turned through extensive marketing planning and campaigning making it a global brands in today’s time. It is renowned fast food brands all over the world with more than 32,000 branches in 117 countries.McDonald’s trade mark was a carefully created and was a successful hit which was a clown with a smile. The big Mac is doctoral writing quotes one of the most successful products of McDonalds. McDonalds offers a menu which is almost the same all cross the world.
The menu includes burgers, hamburgers, cheese burgers and drinks include soft drinks with fries. McDonalds target customers includes kids, teens and families. It is now the most renowned brand in essays on fashion designers, fast food that sells ready to eat and doctoral help quickly served fast food. In spite of being a famous brandMcDonaldsis still facing some issue and essays needs to change its management structure and image as the people in current time have a bit different expectations then those in previous days (McDonalds 2010) In today’s time people have become more diet and health conscious and are now moving towards food which is healthy and has more nutritional values. Fast food has always been known as junk food with no nutritional value and the popular opinion was that fast food results into obesity by increasing fats in the body. Today’s generation is more figure conscious and are looking forward for food which is low fat and plastic and the high in proteins.
McDonaldsis facing problems as it is a well established fast food brand and fast food is on fashion designers always related to unhealthy and scorecard master thesis fattening food, while competitors ofMcDonaldshave already made a move towards health conscious products by introducing entire new range which is healthy and non fattening. McDonalds needs to change the way it markets itself and also need to introduce a new line of on fashion designers, products, as per expectations of new generation’s customers. Advertising and marketing places an important role in establishing an image of the company in the eyes of the society in which it operates. The scope of change widely lies in the implementation of integrated marketing strategy. In this paper the plastic and the essays, importance is given to marketing and advertisement part as to launch new range of healthy products, the company has to implement new marketing practises. The new marketing campaign will adopt a new health conscious process which will flow along with a trend of essays on fashion designers, fitting with health related issues like obesity in young children’s and 11th create awareness about health eating practises. The main objective of this campaign is to promote its new products which are healthy and contains low fats. This will help create positive image of McDonalds among the customers and make them aware of new products which are healthier than the earlier once. To execute these plans the company has to plan its new strategy of advertising and marketing ideas and put a team in place to implement this strategy.
The company has also introduced new smoothes and shakes along with healthy breakfast which is available before 12 in on fashion, all the project, branches in essays designers, UK. The marketing integrated campaigns main aim to reflect company mission and and the environment essays new attitude is been seen by the public through companies new promotion and marketing plans. When implementing change, conflicts will always follow. Essays On Fashion Designers? There are always conflicts on and the environment the route towards changes either before or after it has been initiated. Change in essays on fashion designers, management can be the reason to bring success or failure to an organisation; however conflicts can bring problems if there are not resolved in time as they can bring obstacles in the new management structure introduced. The management has to be aware that it should be capable of not only introducing necessary changes but also be able to implement them effectively clearing all the obstacles. The main reason to report bring changes in the organisation structure especially through marketing campaign is to improve the image of the organisation and to make the company more competitive in its industry. The company might have to face many obstacles in essays designers, doing this and these obstacles can be both external and internal. It is important to know the consent of the stakeholders of the organisation as they are very important part of the organisation.
Stake holders include share holders, customers, supplier and employees. It is important for an organisation to advantages of going to university essay keep all its stakeholders happy because if they are happy then it’s beneficial for on fashion, the organisation. But there will conflict due to changes as there will be resistance from the side of employees or customers themselves as often people resist changing. There may be employees or customers who would accept the essays, change happily but the essays on fashion, problem is with those who do not agree with new management system which is to be implemented. Most of the time they may think that the change which has been brought is nothing to do with the issue or it may worsen the grade 8 book report project, situations. Essays On Fashion Designers? I it may also happen that within employees they might not trust people who are in charge of this new change.
Employees are not the only one who creates obstacles for change sometimes even the writing help, customers are not ready for change. If they do not take to change positively then this may create issue for the company to achieve its goal for designers, the change. Along with this another problem that McDonalds may face is finding the right staff to drive this change that will be responsible to deliver these changes in department of balanced, marketing and communication. In addition to from employees and customer’s resistance there can be other barriers this may affect the process of change. The strategic implementation is important part of changes; complications in this can be problematic for the company. There can be many other issues which can create barriers in changes such as conflict in view of share holders or the problem in finance and lack of budget of the company another problem can be sustaining the process of change. As per carlopio 1998 innovation is something that does not happen in on fashion designers, a day it takes series of plastic, phases to finish the essays, process of change. Staff involved in with a thesis 11th online, this change management process must undergo some kind of training and learning procedure to make them competent to sustain the series of on fashion designers, change until it attains success. Environment Essays? Inability to handle or lack of experience and knowledge in on fashion designers, implementation of strategic change may not be able to achieve integrated marketing and communication strategies. So to overcome the problem of negative response the management of the writing quotes, company should make the staff go through necessary training and essays development programmes. The training programme should be such that it should provide complete understanding of the services, programme to the members of the staff.
It should make sure that none of the information is missed in on fashion, the training programme. Grade Report Project? After the programme there should be a follow up to check if all the designers, members have understood and advantages to university have sufficient information to on fashion designers support change. There can be internal conflicts between the statistics homework, members of the staff due to cultural issues. This bring problem in harmony of the designers, members in the organisation, leading to conflict within the company. McDonalds must understand the cultures of its employees and should identify the problem that may be caused because of the conflicts if any (wikins and Dyer, 1998) McDonalds should incorporate governance in the system to enhance the quality of staff and the time spent by statistics services, them at on fashion, the work place. Different appraisal policies can help to plastic boost employees. Working environment can also be improved so that staff members can have a good time while working for the company which at on fashion, the same time also benefits the edition online, organisation. Strong organisation culture along with good management team is needed to on fashion solve such internal conflict issues. The second most important change is to sustain the success that had been achieved through implementation of new management process.
Change is part of the society and balanced master thesis it comes again in regular interval of essays, time (Carlopio, 1998). For the report, success of change management it is important that all the stakeholders know or are made aware that current change has been brought for the betterment of them. The management of the organisation should constantly analyse the current market trends and predict future scenarios, so that it can prepare itself for next set of change that will be required for the success of the organisation. The success of the new changes in management cannot be correctly predicted as it completely depends on the attitudes of the young generation and the society. Changing the image from fast seller to a company who provides healthy meal is not a easy process, but with strong marketing campaigns and advertisement the message can be sent to people and there is a chance that this message will be delivered. It is essays on fashion imperative that the with edition online, new image of McDonalds reaches all 117 countries. After this message has been promoted there is a chance of getting rid of the critic’s comments that McDonalds brands have unhealthy and fattening. In other words innovation can be explained as a bunch or new ideas which have been successfully implemented (Kuhn, 1993). Innovation can be led by two factors which is technology based innovation and the second one is essays designers demand based innovation. However most of the innovations are charged up realisation of demand instead of technology. Changes are mainly driven by constant research and development, performed by companies and RD is given a lot of attention.
Apart from RD there can be other ways of bringing innovation and one of the simplest ways to keep improving working practises while in the daily routine. Combination of knowledge and extensive work experience can help to innovate a new a better way of doing things. Radical innovation always come from the RD department of the balanced master thesis, company but innovations which are incremental can only come from through practice (Lundvall, 1992). McDonalds will have to plan and implement its new marketing campaigns effectively with effective ways of doing it. The company has to take care that its internal staff is on fashion competent in delivering the outcome and that is minimum resistance from the internally. Advantages To University? There is a good chance that McDonalds can change its image in food industry from essays on fashion, junk food supplier to a health conscious meal provider. As per beverage 2003, the management of the organisation has to writing help be on toss all the time to keep the organisation up to the market expectation. They have to continuously analyse and monitor current market conditions so that that they are aware of the current standing of the company in the market.
To bring innovation the management will have to keep a check on which ideas are working and which are not doing well when implemented and accordingly change the management structure. To implement a management change the leader must create a environment which is safe and will support new changes in the organisation. A above all It can be said that a change in management is good only if that particular change has potential to improve companies competitiveness in the market and bring more success to the organisation. The organisation should keep monitoring current situations and essays on fashion designers make changes only if it is felt necessary, as change in organisation is advantages of going a complex decision and has direct impact on on fashion the image of the organisation. With proper care and preparation and organisation (McDonalds) can survive the toughest competition. Carlopio, J., (1998), “Implementation: making workplace and technical change happen”, McGraw-hill publication, Sydney. Swenson, D.X., (1997), “Requisite conditions for team empowerment”, empowerment in organisations, Vol. 5 No. 1. Reigeluth, C. M. (1994).
The imperative for systemic change. In C. M. Reigeluth R. J. Garfinkle (Eds.), Systemic change in education (pp. 3-11). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. Wilkins, A., Dyer, W. Jr (1988), “Toward culturally sensitive theories of cultural change”, Academy of Management Review , Vol. 13.
Kuhn, R.L., Ed., (1993), “ Generating Creativity and Innovation in Large Bureaucracies” , Quorum Books, London. Lundvall, B.A., (1992), “ National Systems of Innovation: Towards a Theory of. Innovation and Interactive learning” , Pinter, London. Beverage, w. M., (2002), “slow change in fast culture”, Educause review, pp. 10-11. Moran, J. W. and Brightman, B. Report Project? K. Essays On Fashion? (2001) ‘Leading organizational change’, Career Development International, Burnes, B. (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics, 4th edn (Harlow: Rieley, J. Statistics Services? B. and Clarkson, I. (2001) ‘The impact of change on performance’, Journal of Change Management, Graetz, F. (2000) ‘Strategic change leadership’, Management Decision, 38(8), pp. On Fashion Designers? 550–562.
Luecke, R. (2003), “ Managing Change and plastic environment essays Transition”, Harvard Business School Press, Boston. Burnes, B. (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics, 4th edn (Harlow: Bamford, D. Essays On Fashion? R. and Forrester, P. L. (2003) ‘Managing planned and emergent change within an operations. management environment’, International Journal of Operations Production Management, issue 23, Vol. 5. McDonalds, (2010), “about McDonalds”, http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd, viewed on 5 th march 2011. If you enjoyed this article, subscribe to receive more just like it. Including student tips and doctoral dissertation writing quotes advice. Enter your email address below to receive helpful student articles and tips. 2017 The WritePass Journal.
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